Tuesday, January 19, 2016

Ahram e Misr History Urdu Information Ahram e Misar Ki Tareekh Urdu Essay Ahram e Misr Note

Lal Gulab     6:15 AM     No comments

Ahram e Misr History Urdu Essay Ahram e Misar Note

Ahram e Misr Information In Urdu: Ye duniya ajaibat se bhari pari hai. In main se kuch to qudarti kahlate hain taham kuch aise hain jo insan kawishon ke natije main wajood main ae hain. Dor jadid main ajaibat alim ki tarif badal gai hai, isi liye ab in ki darja war fahristain bana li gai hain. Inhi main se ek darja zamana qadeem ke ajaibat ka bhi hai, jis ki fahrist main 7 tamerat ka zikar hai, in main ahram e misar babul ke maliq bagat, zaiwas ka mujasma, artaims ka mandir, hally karmnaisis ka makbara, rahodas closis ka mujasma aur iskandaria ka light house shamil hain. Lekin ab in main sirf ahram e misar apni asal halat main maujood hai aur jaisa ke naam se zahir hai ye mashrik wasta ke mulk misar main pae jate hain. In main sab se qadeem ahram "saqara" ko mana jata hai jo Memphis ke shumal magrib main wakia hai. Is ke sathi Djoser ke ahram bhi pae jate hain. Ye ahram misar ke firain ki 3 nasal ne tameer karae the. Misar ke sab se mashoor ahram kahira ke karib gaza main hain jin main "khufu" ka makbara sab se bara hai.

Ahram e Misar Ki Tareekh

Ye dunya ke qadeem ajaibat main se wahid ajooba hai jo apni asal halat main maujood hai ise tarashe hue patharon se tayar ki gai pukhta tamerat ka qadeem taren shahkar karar dia jata hai. Ibtadai dor main misriyon ko ritechniqal ki shakal main tayar kie gae makbaron main dafan kia jata hai. Ye makbara "Mastaba" kahlate the. In ki upri satah chapti hoti thi aur inhain darya e neel se nikalne wali mati se tayar ki gai ainton se tayar kia jata hai. "imhoten" nami mahir tameerat ne inhi mastaba par mazeed steps is tarah banane shuru kiye ke in ka rakba bunyad ke mukable main kam hota gaya yahan tak ke mastaba ka buland taren makam ek nok ki shakal ikhtiyar kar gaya. Yu ahram ka tasawur samne aya. Isi ke natije main jo zarka seriyon ki shakal main tameer kia gaya makbara tashkel paya. Kuch qadeem misriyon Ke nazdik is tarah makbare banane ka maksad ye tha ke marne wale firon ki rooh ba asani janat tak puhnch jae. Gaza ke ilake main tameer kiye gae ahramo ke bare main khayal kia jata hai ke inki tameerat main kam se kam ek lakh mazduron ne hisa lia hoga. Mahiren asar qadeema ka kahna hai ke sab se qadeem dor main tameer hone wale ahram bohat bare hone ke sath sath awla tameerat ka shahkar the. Lekin guzarte waqt ke sath inki jisamat choti hoti gai aur tameer ka mayar bhi girta gaya. Shayad iski waja waqt ke sath afradi quwat aur wasail main kami wakia hona hogi.

Mahireen Ki Raye

Mahreen ka ye bhi kahna hai ke kuch ahram shahi makbaron ke tor par tayar kiye gae jabke kuch ibadat gahon ke liye in ki tameer ke liye graphite aur chone ke patharon ko kat kar ainton ki shakal di gai thi in main ek ka wazan kam se kam do tan tha, in patharon ko dusre ilakon se hasil karne ke bad daryae neel main kashtiyon ke zariye tameerat ke Liye laya jata. Kashtiyon se tamerati ilake tak mazdoor in patharon ko traliyu par rakh kar rasiyon ki madad se khench kar puhnchate. Mahiren asar qadeema is sawal ka bilkul durust jawab aj tak nahin jan pae ke itne bhar pathar kis tarah khench kar lae jate aur phir inhain matlooba bulandi tak kaise puhchaya jata. Kuch mahreen ka khayal hai ke is maksad ke liye har satah par dhalan banai jati hogi jis par in patharon ko rasiyon ki madad se khench kar ya dhaka de kar bulandi tak puhnchaya jata hoga. Zahir hai is ke liye hazaron balke lakhon afrad ki quwat darkar hogi. Jab ye pathar ahram main rakh diye jate to phir mahir sang tarash nahin hamwar karte. Ahram ke patharon ko andar se is tarah kata jata ke do kamre ban jate ek kamre main firon ki hanot shuda lash dafan ki jati jabke dusre kamre main isi firon ke zair istamal qeemti aur eham ashiya ko mehfuz kia jata. Firon ka tabot surang numa tawel rahdari Misriyon ka manna tha ke rat ko asman ke tarik hise ke gird sitaron ke gardish karne se janat ka rasta banta hai.

Ahram ki nok isi tarikhi hise ki taraf batai jati ta ke madfoon firon ki rooh iske zariye janat main dakhil hosake. Siwae ek ke tamam misri ahram daryae neel ke magrabi sahil ki taraf banae gae hain jahan suraj guroob hota hai. Ibtadai tahkik se lekar ab tak kai ahram darfiyat hochuke hain. 1842 main karle laipsar nami mahir asar qadeema ne inki pehli fahrist banai thi, jis ke mutabik ahram ki tadad 67 thi. Taham iske bad bhi in ki talash ka silsila jari raha aur november 2008 tak daryaft kiye gae ahram misri ki tadad 118 hochuki hai. In main se 29 aise bhi hain jinhain laipsar ne " Headless pyramid" ka name dia tha. Ye ahram laipser ki fahrist main shamil the lekin iske bad ye sahra ki rait main dubara dafan hogae. Inhain dubara 2008 tak hone wali khudai main darfiyat kia gaya. Ab tak daryaft Kiye jane wale ahramo main zayada tar ya to bohat khasta hal hain ya abhi tak rait main hi dafan hain, sirf inke asar hi pae gae hain. Jo khur dare patharon ki shakal main hain. Mahreen asar qadeema mazid tahkik ke liye in asaron ke gird khudai ka kam jari rakhe hue hain. Ab tak jo akhri ahram daryaft hua hai wo malka " Sesheshet" ka hai, jo firain ki 6 nasal ke badshah ki maa thi. Is daryaft ka ailan misri asar qadeema ki supreme council ke secratry general zahi hawas ne 11 november 2008 ko kia tha. Jis ahram ke bakiyat sab se zayada shumal main paegae hain, ise " Abu Rawash" ke name se jana jata hai. Iske bare main khayal hai ke ye firon "khufu" ke bete ka makbara hai. Laipser ne iske bare main andaza lagaya tha ke ye makbara shayad mukamal nahin hopaya tha. Taham iske bad ki tahkik ne laipser ke khayal ki tarwid ki ke iska shumar bare ahramo main kia jata hai. Gaza main maujood "khufu" ka makbara Sab se bara ahram bataya jata hai. Khufu ke ahram ke gird kuch chote ahram bhi pae gae hain jinhain malkaon ke ahram karar dia gaya hai isi ke sath. " Abu alhol" ka mujasma hai. Ye ek aisa dewka mat mujasma hai jiska dhar shair ka aur sar insan ka hai. Khayal kia jata hai ke ise takriban 2500 baras kabal masiah main tayar kia hoga.

Ahram e Misr Ki Haqeeqat

Ye haqiqat aj bhi nahin maloom ki jasaki hai ke is mujasme ka kya maksad hai aur sirf aisi jaga par aisa mujasma kyun banaya gaya hai. Gaza ka ye makbara wahid ahram hai jo mukamal tor par apni asal halat main maujood hai jabke iske aitaraf main malkaon ke makbare ya to bohat shikasta halt main hain ya inke asar maujood hain. Gaza main maujood khufu ka ahram takriban 2560 kabal masih main tameer kia gaya hoga. Iski beruni satah a bhi chamkdar hai. Ye makam misar main siyahon ke liye sab se zayada dilchaspi rakhta hai. Iske andar jane wale raste ka agaz par deewaron ke sath Mukhtalif mujasme bane hue hain. Andar jane ka rasta bohat tang hai jis main se ek waqt main ek hi admi guzar sakta hai. Ek kamra uper ki taraf jabke dusra neche ki taraf hai. Taham in dono tak jane ke liye siriyan bani hui hain. Andar ki taraf dewaron par mukhtalif ishkal aur alamatain bani hui hain. Agar cha kuch jagahon par qadeem zaban main tahrirain bhi kanda hain lekin bohat se mahreen dewaron par bani alamaton ko bhi zaban hi ka hisa samjhte hain. Yahan ye bhi batate chalain ke am tor se ahram ke nichle kamre main dakhla par pabandi rahti hai aur wahan jane ke liye khasusi ijazat nama lena parta hai. Gaza ke azeem ahram ke kuch fasle par do na mukamal ahramo ke asar pae jate hain in main se ek "Nebka" nami firon ka jabke dusra "Khaba" nami firon ka makbara bataya jata hai. In ki unchai 20 meters ke kareb hai. Agar ye mukamal hojate to shayad inki unchai 40tak puhnch jati. Inhi se kuch dor "Abu sir" Ka ilaka hai jaha kul 14 ahram pae jate hain. Ye firon ki 5 nasal ke qabrustan batae jate hain yahan ke ahramo ka tarz tameer ka mayar 4 nasal ke mukable main kam tar hai. Shayad ye firain ka asar o rasokh kam hone ki nishandahi karta hai. Inki tameer main gair mayari patharon ka istamal kia gaya hai. Sakara ke ilake main mastaba samet sab se zayada ahram pae jate hain.

Aam tor se yahi kaha jata hai ke yahan dunya ke qadeem taren tamerati yadgarain maujood hain. Yahin "ramises dom" ke bete ka makbara bhi maujood hai. Saqara main jin degar firain ke makbare pae jate hain in main "user kat", "Teti" aur "unas" ke makbare shanakht karliye gae hain. Iske ilawa bohat se ahram aise bhi hain jin ke asar to maujood hain lekin abi tak in ke gird khudai nahin ki gai hai. Jo log in ahram tak gae hain wo aj bhi in main ek pur israriyat mehsus karte hain mahren asar qadeema in ahram ke bare main har dor main tehqeeq Karte hain. Jiske natije main qadeem misar aur firain ke bare main bohat si eham malumat hasil hui hain isi se ye bat bhi samne ai ke 2500 baras kabal masih ka insan wo fan janta tha jo shayad aj ke mahren tamerat ke pas bhi nahin hai bagair kisi krain aur degar machines ke itni azeem imartain tameer karna ek aisi hakikat hai jise ye zahir tasleem karna mushkil nazar ata hai. Shayad isi liye kuch afrad ye sabit karne ki koshish kar rahe hain ke dar haqiqat ye ahram itne qadeem dor main banae hi nahin gae. Haal hi mein wo German bashindon dominko joirlates aur stafin ard main samait kai afrad ko hirasat main lia gaya hai. Ye dono guzishta baras april ke mahene main gaza ke ahram main gae the, inhon ne neche ke kamre main dakhil ka ijazat nama bhi le lia tha. In dono ka kahna tha ke wo ahram ke bare main dastawaizi film bana rahe hain jis main inke mutabik ye sabit kia jaega ke yd tasir galat hai ke ahram Misar kabal masiah main banae gae the. Taham in ki tahkik to manzar am par na ahsaki lekin in samait kai afrad ko giraftar karlia gaya hai. In logon par ilzam hai ke tahkik keliye namonu ke naam par qeemti nowadirat churane ke sath ahram e misar ki qadeem tarikhi hasiyat masnakh karne ki bhi koshish ki hai.

Dominako joirlates aur stafin ardman ne is bat ka aitraf kia hai ke wo ahram ke bare main nai tahkik se in tameerat ki mudat ka sahi andaza lagana chah rahe the. Inhon ne ahram main apni tasaweer aur video clips bhi load ki hain. In ikdam ka misar ki hakumat ne sakht notice lia hai aur german bashindon samait 6 misariyon ko bhi giraftar kia hai. German bashindon ki ye matanaza thaiwri in ke apne zehan ki paidawar nahin hai balke ye khayal 1968 main franci kitab nawis ayrik wan dinaksan ne apni kitab " chairtes of the Gords" main paish kia tha. Ye kitab best saller kahlati thi. Ayrik von dinaksan ka Kuch bhi kahna ho lekin is bat se inkar nahin kia jasakta ke ahram e misar tamerat ka wo namuna hain jinhain shahyad kisi bhi dor main banana asan nahin hoga aur jahan ye insani hunar ki akasi karte hain, wohi dunya ke liye dahshat aur ibrat ka makam bhi hain.

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